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Concretions of the Conjunctiva
Concretions are deposits of solidified protein (although they look like calcium deposits) under the lining of the lid called the conjunctiva. This lining goes back to a recess between the eyelid and the eyeball and then is reflected onto the eyeball itself. The lid conjunctiva is called the palpebral (lid) conjunctiva, and the surface of the eye conjunctiva is called the bulbar (eyeball) conjunctiva.
The cause of the whitish areas is thought to be chronic inflammation. In this photo, a deep concretion is seen protruding and causing a small sub-conjunctival hemorrhage under the bulbar conjunctiva from rubbing as the lid blinks. These concretions can cause a foreign body, scratchy, or irritating sensation and are very annoying.
Treatment consists of numbing the surface with a topical (drop) anesthetic, and using a fine needle to shell them out. It is painless.